Works cited and notes

All references are shown via direct links within the text. This is a sequential list of all the references in the book, with page numbers and additional notes listed where relevant in bold italics.


Banerjee, N., Cushman, J., Jr., Hasemyer, J. and L. Song. Exxon: The Road Not Taken. Inside Climate News. 2016.

Westervelt, A. Drilled podcast, Season 1: The Origins of Climate Denial, 2016.

Hope, M. and K. Savage. The Global Climate Coalition Files: How Big Business Funded Climate Science Denial and Regulatory Delay. DeSmog, 2019.

Kuznets, N. “Exxon Touts Carbon Capture as a Climate Fix, but Uses It to Maximize Profit and Keep Oil Flowing,” Inside Climate News, Sept. 27, 2020.

Song, L. and P. Moura. “An (Even More) Inconvenient Truth,” ProPublica, May 22, 2019.

Cushman, J., Jr. “Highlighting the Allure of Synfuels, Exxon Played Down the Climate Risks,” Inside Climate News, October 8, 2015.

Generation Green New Deal podcast, Episode 4, “Where Have The Adults Been?”

Climate Feedback website.

Ray, S. J. A Field Guide to Climate Anxiety, U. Calif. Press, 2020, 216 pp.

Why We Need Radical Change

Black, J. F. The Greenhouse Effect. Written version of July 1977 presentation to Exxon Corporation Management Committee. June 6, 1978. Archived by Inside Climate News.

Black-Kalinsky, C. “My Father Warned Exxon about Climate in the 1970s. They Didn’t Listen.” The Guardian, May 25, 2016.

Banerjee, N., Song, L. and D. Hasemyer. “Exxon Believed Deep Dive into Climate Research Would Protect its Business,” Inside Climate News, Sept. 17, 2015.

Song, L., Banerjee, N. and D. Hasemyer. “Exxon Confirmed Global Warming Consensus in 1982 with In-House Climate Models,” Inside Climate News, Sept. 22, 2015.

Glaser, M. B. Memo to Exxon management. Nov. 12, 1982.

Cushman, J., Jr. “Exxon Made Deep Cuts in Climate Research Budget in the 1980s,” Inside Climate News, Nov. 25, 2015.

Westervelt, A. Drilled podcast, Season 1: The Origins of Climate Denial, 2016.

NASA GISS Surface Temperature Analysis (v4).

The Python notebook used to make the global temperature plot is available here. The NASA GISS temperature dataset typically updates in mid-January.

Hegerl, G.C., F. W. Zwiers, P. Braconnot, N.P. Gillett, Y. Luo, J.A. Marengo Orsini, N. Nicholls, J.E. Penner and P.A. Stott, 2007: Understanding and Attributing Climate Change. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. p. 665.

IPCC, 2021: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Masson-Delmotte, V., P. Zhai, A. Pirani, S.L. Connors, C. Péan, S. Berger, N. Caud, Y. Chen, L. Goldfarb, M.I. Gomis, M. Huang, K. Leitzell, E. Lonnoy, J.B.R. Matthews, T.K. Maycock, T. Waterfield, O. Yelekçi, R. Yu, and B. Zhou (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 3−32, doi:10.1017/9781009157896.001. A.1.3.

Friedlingstein, P., O’Sullivan, M., Jones, M. W., Andrew, R. M., Gregor, L., Hauck, J., Le Quéré, C., Luijkx, I. T., Olsen, A., Peters, G. P., Peters, W., Pongratz, J., Schwingshackl, C., Sitch, S., Canadell, J. G., Ciais, P., Jackson, R. B., Alin, S. R., Alkama, R., Arneth, A., Arora, V. K., Bates, N. R., Becker, M., Bellouin, N., Bittig, H. C., Bopp, L., Chevallier, F., Chini, L. P., Cronin, M., Evans, W., Falk, S., Feely, R. A., Gasser, T., Gehlen, M., Gkritzalis, T., Gloege, L., Grassi, G., Gruber, N., Gürses, Ö., Harris, I., Hefner, M., Houghton, R. A., Hurtt, G. C., Iida, Y., Ilyina, T., Jain, A. K., Jersild, A., Kadono, K., Kato, E., Kennedy, D., Klein Goldewijk, K., Knauer, J., Korsbakken, J. I., Landschützer, P., Lefèvre, N., Lindsay, K., Liu, J., Liu, Z., Marland, G., Mayot, N., McGrath, M. J., Metzl, N., Monacci, N. M., Munro, D. R., Nakaoka, S.-I., Niwa, Y., O’Brien, K., Ono, T., Palmer, P. I., Pan, N., Pierrot, D., Pocock, K., Poulter, B., Resplandy, L., Robertson, E., Rödenbeck, C., Rodriguez, C., Rosan, T. M., Schwinger, J., Séférian, R., Shutler, J. D., Skjelvan, I., Steinhoff, T., Sun, Q., Sutton, A. J., Sweeney, C., Takao, S., Tanhua, T., Tans, P. P., Tian, X., Tian, H., Tilbrook, B., Tsujino, H., Tubiello, F., van der Werf, G. R., Walker, A. P., Wanninkhof, R., Whitehead, C., Willstrand Wranne, A., Wright, R., Yuan, W., Yue, C., Yue, X., Zaehle, S., Zeng, J., and Zheng, B.: Global Carbon Budget 2022, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4811–4900,, 2022.

The Python notebook used to create the emissions figure is available here. The Global Carbon Project dataset was last updated on Nov 11, 2022.

Archer, D. The Long Thaw: How Humans are Changing the Next 100,000 Years of Earth’s Climate, Princeton U. P., 2016, 200 pp.

IPCC, 2022: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2022: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [P.R. Shukla, J. Skea, R. Slade, A. Al Khourdajie, R. van Diemen, D. McCollum, M. Pathak, S. Some, P. Vyas, R. Fradera, M. Belkacemi, A. Hasija, G. Lisboa, S. Luz, J. Malley, (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA. doi: 10.1017/9781009157926.001. Sections B1-B3.

The supplementary plot showing CO2 emissions from fossil fuels only uses data from the Global Carbon Budget 2021 (full reference above). The Python notebook used to make this figure is available here.

“Press Conference by the Alliance of Small Island States on Climate Change,” United Nations website, July 10, 2009.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Parties. Paris Agreement. United Nations, 2015.

IEA (2022), Final Energy Consumption by Source.

IEA (2021), Electric Vehicles, IEA, Paris.

Listening to the Frontlines: The Jemez Principles

The Combahee River Collective: “The Combahee River Collective Statement,” April 1977.

How We Get Free: Black Feminism and the Combahee River Collective. Edited by Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor. Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2017.

Letter from the SouthWest Organizing Project to the Group of Ten. Mar. 16, 1990.

Energy: Hours of Power

Herman, R. “How fast is the Earth moving?” Scientific American, October 26, 1998.

U.S. Energy Information Administration. “International data, electricity.”

International Energy Agency. “Renewables.”

Power On…

J.M.K.C. Donev et al. (2021). “Energy Education – Coal” [Online].

J.M.K.C. Donev et al. (2021). Energy Education – Coal fired power plant [Online].
9000 tons per day is 6.25 tons per minute.

BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2022.

Fossil methane gas calculation assumes a density of approximately 0.7 kg/m3 to convert from trillions of cubic meters to gigatons.

Global Carbon Budget 2022.

Malm, Andreas. Fossil Capital: The Rise of Steam Power and the Roots of Global Warming. Verso, 2016, 496 pp.

…On Power

Noor, Dharna. “John Prine’s ‘Paradise’ Taught Us Why We Can’t Give in to Climate Hell,” Earther, Apr. 8, 2020.

Terkel, Studs and John Prine. “John Prine discusses his life and his formation in music.” The Studs Terkel Radio Archive, 1975, 29 m, 50 s.

Peyton, Dave. “John Prime Knew Coal’s Destructive Ways.” AP News, Feb. 20, 2019.

Mitchell, Brooks W. “Way Down the Green River, Where Paradise Lay.” StoryMaps, Mar. 14, 2021.

Bruggers, James. “Bankrupt Peabody had ‘World’s Largest Shovel.'” Louisville Courier Journal, Apr. 13, 2016.

EJatlas (2020) “Bayan Obo world biggest rare earths mine, Baotou, Inner Mongolia, China.” In: Atlas of Environmental Justice. Accessed 24 Jul 2022.

EJatlas (2020) “Bikita Minerals Lithium mine in the Masvingo Province, Zimbabwe.” In: Atlas of Environmental Justice. Accessed 24 Jul 2022.

EJatlas (2021) “Kevitsa Mine, Finland.” In: Atlas of Environmental Justice. Accessed 24 Jul 2022.

EJatlas (2020) “African Minerals Ltd’s Tonkolili Iron Ore Mine in Bumbuna, Sierra Leone.” In: Atlas of Environmental Justice. Accessed 24 Jul 2022.

EJatlas (2021) “Proyecto Minero Cerro del Gallo, Guanatuato, Mexico.” In: Atlas of Environmental Justice. Accessed 24 Jul 2022.

EJatlas (2021) “Tenke Fungurume Deposit, Democratic Republic of Congo.” In: Atlas of Environmental Justice. Accessed 24 Jul 2022.

EJatlas (2021) “Ezulwini Gold and Uranium Mining, Gauteng, South Africa.” In: Atlas of Environmental Justice. Accessed 24 Jul 2022.

EJatlas (2020) “Minera Los Palambres, Los Vilos, Coquimbo, Chile.” In: Atlas of Environmental Justice. Accessed 24 Jul 2022.

EJatlas (2020) “Rio Tinto / BHP’s Iron Mining Destroys Sacred Aboriginal Sites, Western Australia.” In: Atlas of Environmental Justice. Accessed 24 Jul 2022.

EJatlas (2021) “Outokumpu Mine, Finland.” In: Atlas of Environmental Justice. Accessed 24 Jul 2022.

EJatlas (2021) “Talvivaara Nickel Mining Company, Finland.” In: Atlas of Environmental Justice. Accessed 24 Jul 2022.

EJatlas (2021) “Mutanda Mine, Democratic Republic of Congo.” In: Atlas of Environmental Justice. Accessed 24 Jul 2022.

EJatlas (2021) “Steppe Gold’s ATO Mine in Tsagaan-Ovoo Soum, Dornod, Mongolia.” In: Atlas of Environmental Justice. Accessed 24 Jul 2022.

EJatlas (2021) “Gosowong Gold Mine on Indigenous Pagu Territory in North Halmahera, Maluku, Indonesia.” In: Atlas of Environmental Justice. Accessed 24 Jul 2022.

Citizens Coal Council. “Strip Mining.” 2022. Accessed 24 Jul 2022.

Appalshop Films and WMMT’s Community Correspondents Corps. “Acid Mine Damage in Dry Fork.” Video, 2 min 29 sec, Mar. 14, 2007.

Hagerman, Eileen Michelle. “Water, Workers, and Wealth: How ‘Mr. Peabody’s’ Coal Barge Stripped Kentucky’s Green River Valley,” Reg. Ky. Hist. Soc., 115 (2), 183-221, 2017.

Terkel, Studs and Joe Begley. “Interview with Joe Begley.” The Studs Terkel Radio Archive, 1970, 1 hr 2 min 43 sec.

Montrie, Chad. To Save the Land and People: A History of Opposition to Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia. UNC Press, 2003, 264 pp.

Montrie, Chad. A People’s History of Environmentalism in the United States. Bloomsbury, 2011, 200 pp.

Montrie, Chad. “Expedient Environmentalism: Opposition to Coal Surface Mining in Appalachia and the United Mine Workers of America, 1945-1975.” Environmental History, vol. 5, no. 1, 2000, pp. 75–98. JSTOR, Accessed 25 Jul. 2022.

Bethell, T. N. “HOT TIME AHEAD.” Appalachia in the Sixties: Decade of Reawakening, edited by David S. Walls and John B. Stephenson, 1st ed., University Press of Kentucky, 1972, pp. 116–19. JSTOR, Accessed 25 Jul. 2022.

Rovics, David. “East Tennessee.” David Rovics website, 2009. Accessed 25 Jul. 2022.

Global Energy Monitor. “Global Coal Mine Tracker.” Accessed 25 Jul. 2022.

Appalachian Voices. “Mountaintop Removal 101.” Accessed 25 Jul. 2022.

Ross, Matthew R. V., McGlynn, Brian L., and Emily S. Bernhardt. “Deep Impact: Effects of Mountaintop Mining on Surface Topography, Bedrock Structure, and Downstream Waters.” Environmental Science and Technology, January 22, 2016. Interactive data:

Bruggers, James. “Appalachia’s Strip-Mined Mountains Face a Growing Climate Risk: Flooding.” Inside Climate News, Nov. 21, 2019.

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, All Employees, Coal Mining [CEU1021210001], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis;, July 24, 2022.

Bruggers, James. “Mountaintop Mining Is Destroying More Land for Less Coal, Study Finds.” Inside Climate News, Jul. 26, 2018. Accessed 25 Jul. 2022.

Ritchey, Andrew. “Mining coal songs for historical perspective.” INDY Week, Jun. 17, 2009.

FRONTLINE and NPR. “Coal’s Deadly Dust.” FRONTLINE, S2018 E6.

NPR. “Black Lung Returns To Coal Country: A Deadly Coal Miners’ Disease is Surging Back Despite Rules Created to Control the Disease.” Series, 2012-2018.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). “Mining Topic: Respiratory Diseases.” Accessed 25 Jul. 2022.

NIOSH. “Prevalence of Black Lung Continues to Increase Among U.S. Coal Miners.” Jul. 20, 2018. Accessed 25 Jul. 2022.

East, Elyssa. “Black lung disease is still killing miners. The coal industry won’t hear it.” The Guardian, 13 Dec. 2018. Accessed 25 Jul. 2022.

Berkes, Howard and Huo Jingnan. “Coal Miners to Demand Congress to Restore Full Black Lung Benefits Tax.” FRONTLINE and NPR, Jul. 23, 2019. Accessed 25 Jul. 2022.

Smith, Barbara Ellen. “Workers Have Always Been Fighting Against Disease.” Jacobin, Oct. 5, 2020.

Eklund, Erik. “Coal and industrial relations: how miners secured workers’ rights.” The Conversation, Jun. 9, 2016.

Kahle, Trish. “Coal Miners’ Struggle Against Black Lung is a Climate Justice Issue.” Jacobin, Nov. 1, 2020.

Boyles, Sydney. “‘Bloody Harlan’ Revisited: Blackjewel Miners Draw On Labor History While Facing Uncertain Future.” WFPL/Ohio Valley ReSource, Aug. 12, 2019.

Winslow, Cal. “A Brief History of Harlan County, USA.” Labor Notes, Aug. 14, 2019.

Maxwell, Tom. “A History of American Protest Music: Which Side Are You On?” Longreads, August 2018.

Benson, Shiela. “Barbara Kopple’s Harlan County, U.S.A. (1976).” Documentary Magazine, Nov. 30, 2007.

Lydersen, Kari. “Contract Coal Miners Face Longer Hours, Higher Risk than Full-Time Peers.” Energy News Network, Jul. 13, 2021.

Hasemyer, David. “It Took This Coal Miner 14 Years to Secure Black Lung Benefits. How Come?” Inside Climate News, Sept. 7, 2017.

Lydersen, Kari. “Black Lung, A Scourge of the Past, Still Plagues Illinois Mines.” Energy News Network, Jul. 14, 2021.

Hamby, Chris. “Breathless and Burdened.” Center for Public Integrity, 2014.

Berkes, Howard, Jingnan, Huo and Robert Benincasa. “An Epidemic Is Killing Thousands Of Coal Miners. Regulators Could Have Stopped It.” NPR, Dec. 18, 2018.

Bruggers, James. “8 Black Lung Indictments Allege Coal Mine Managers Lied About Health Safety.” Inside Climate News, Jul. 11, 2018.

Roddy, Dennis B. and Vivian Nereim. “A history of violations at Upper Big Branch mine.” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Apr. 6, 2010.

Ward, Ken, Jr. “Miners Say Upper Big Branch Mine Cheated on Dust Sampling.” Center for Public Integrity, Jul. 8, 2012.

600lbs of Sin and Sierra Ferrell. “29.” Video performance, Sept. 19, 2010, 6 min 28 sec.

Stancil, Kenny. “Coal Miners Union Says It Would Accept Transition to Renewables With Green Jobs.” Truthout, Apr. 20, 2021.

Brown, Alex and Sophie Quinton. “As U.S. Coal Plants Shutter, One Town Tests an Off-Ramp.” Stateline, Mar. 4, 2020.

Ebert, Joel. “Assassination of Activist in 1969 Changed Unions.” West Virginia Gazette-Mail, Dec. 30, 2014.

Cerrell Associates. “Political Difficulties Facing Waste-to-Energy Conversion Plant Siting.” 1984, accessed from EJ Net,

Gunn-Wright, R. “Policies and Principles of a Green New Deal.” In Winning the Green New Deal: Why We Must, How We Can. Prakash, Varshini and Guido Girgenti, eds. Simon & Schuster, 2020, 384 pp.

“H.R.109 – 116th Congress: Recognizing the Duty of the Federal Government to Create a Green New Deal.”, Library of Congress,

Noor, Dharna. “Why Medicare for All Must Be Part of the Green New Deal.” Earther, Mar. 17, 2021.

In These Times Editors. “Universal Child Care Could Revolutionize the Economy.” In These Times, Jun. 7, 2021.

IEA. “Electricity Generation by Source, World.” Accessed 25 Jul. 2022.

IEA. “Electric vehicles.” Accessed 25 Jul. 2022.
16 million electric vehicles out of roughly 1.4 billion vehicles worldwide.

IEA. “The Challenge of Reaching Zero Emissions in Heavy Industry.” 19 Sept. 2020.

Jacobson, Mark Z. “The health and climate impacts of carbon capture and direct air capture.” Energy Environ. Sci., 2019, 12, 3567-3574.

Hodgson, Camilla. “US Forest Fires Threaten Carbon Offsets as Company-Linked Trees Burn.” Inside Climate News, Aug. 4, 2021.

Song, L. and P. Moura. “An (Even More) Inconvenient Truth,” ProPublica, May 22, 2019.

Klein, Naomi. This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs the Climate. Simon and Schuster, 2014, 576 pp.

Gonzáles, Juan, Goodman, Amy and Stephen Kinzer. “Overthrow: 100 Years of U.S. Meddling & Regime Change, from Iran to Nicaragua to Hawaii to Cuba,” Democracy Now, Mar. 12, 2018.

Ajl, Max. A People’s Green New Deal. Pluto Books, 2021, 215 pp.

A Tera-Scale Planet

United Nations Population Fund. “World Population Dashboard.” Accessed 25 Jul 2022. “Global Inequality.” Accessed 5 Sept 2022.

IPCC, 2018: Summary for Policymakers. In: Global Warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty [Masson-Delmotte, V., P. Zhai, H.-O. Pörtner, D. Roberts, J. Skea, P.R. Shukla, A. Pirani, W. Moufouma-Okia, C. Péan, R. Pidcock, S. Connors, J.B.R. Matthews, Y. Chen, X. Zhou, M.I. Gomis, E. Lonnoy, T. Maycock, M. Tignor, and T. Waterfield (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, pp. 3-24, doi:10.1017/9781009157940.001Fig SPM.1c. 

1 ppm of atmospheric CO2 is equivalent to 7.8 GtCO2, so 1 trillion tons of CO2 in the atmosphere corresponds to an increase of 128 ppm. Added to the 1750 concentrations of 277 ppm, 1 trillion tons of atmospheric accumulation implies 405 ppm, which was first exceeded in the global average in 2017.

Global Carbon Budget 2021 estimates that between 1750 and 2020, cumulative fossil CO2 emissions were 1.69 (+/- 0.09) trillion tons, and cumulative land use CO2 emissions were 0.86 (+/- 0.27) trillion tons. The ocean is estimated to have taken up 0.66 (+/- 0.13) trillion tons and the land is estimated to have taken up 0.79 (+/- 0.18) trillion tons between 1750 and 2020.

bp Statistical Review of World Energy 2022.

Electricity generation in 1985 was 9883 TWh = 1.1 TW (using 8760 TWh/yr = 1 TW average generation).

L’Ecuyer, T. S., Beaudoing, H. K., Rodell, M., Olson, W., Lin, B., Kato, S., Clayson, C. A., Wood, E., Sheffield, J., Adler, R., Huffman, G., Bosilovich, M., Gu, G., Robertson, F., Houser, P. R., Chambers, D., Famiglietti, J. S., Fetzer, E., Liu, W. T., Gao, X., Schlosser, C. A., Clark, E., Lettenmaier, D. P., & Hilburn, K. (2015). The Observed State of the Energy Budget in the Early Twenty-First Century, Journal of Climate, 28(21), 8319-8346. Retrieved Sep 5, 2022, from

Trapping Heat

Global Atmospheric CO2 Data. Ed Dlugokencky and Pieter Tans, NOAA/GML ( Accessed 5 Sept 2022.

Global Atmospheric CH4 Data. Ed Dlugokencky, NOAA/GML ( Accessed 5 Sept 2022.

Global Atmospheric N2O Data. Ed Dlugokencky, NOAA/GML ( Accessed 5 Sept 2022.

Halocarbon and Other Atmospheric Trace Species. Steven Montzka and Jim Elkins. Accessed 5 Sept 2022.

The above datasets are supplemented with Inputs4MIPs data to create the plots.

CO2, CH4, and N2O radiative forcings are scaled to the 2019 values from IPCC AR6 WG1 Chapter 7.3.2, and updated with the new concentration data, using logarithmic scaling for CO2, and square root scaling for CH4 and N2O. Forever chemical and ozone radiative forcings use the time series from Inputs4MIPs, scaled to the IPCC values for 2019 radiative forcing.

A. Gaudel, O. R. Cooper, G. Ancellet, B. Barret, A. Boynard, J. P. Burrows, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, J. Cuesta, E. Cuevas, S. Doniki, G. Dufour, F. Ebojie, G. Foret, O. Garcia, M. J. Granados-Muñoz, J. W. Hannigan, F. Hase, B. Hassler, G. Huang, D. Hurtmans, D. Jaffe, N. Jones, P. Kalabokas, B. Kerridge, S. Kulawik, B. Latter, T. Leblanc, E. Le Flochmoën, W. Lin, J. Liu, X. Liu, E. Mahieu, A. McClure-Begley, J. L. Neu, M. Osman, M. Palm, H. Petetin, I. Petropavlovskikh, R. Querel, N. Rahpoe, A. Rozanov, M. G. Schultz, J. Schwab, R. Siddans, D. Smale, M. Steinbacher, H. Tanimoto, D. W. Tarasick, V. Thouret, A. M. Thompson, T. Trickl, E. Weatherhead, C. Wespes, H. M. Worden, C. Vigouroux, X. Xu, G. Zeng, J. Ziemke; Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report: Present-day distribution and trends of tropospheric ozone relevant to climate and global atmospheric chemistry model evaluation. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene 1 January 2018; 6 39. doi:

NASA Ozone Watch. Accessed on 5 Sept 2022.

For further reading on this topic, see the following four textbooks.

Archer, David. Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast. Wiley, 2014, 228 pp.

Dassler, Andrew. Introduction to Modern Climate Change. Cambridge U. P., 3rd ed., 2021, 288 pp.

Hartmann, Dennis. Global Physical Climatology. Elsevier Science, 2nd ed, 2016, 498 pp.

Henson, Robert. The Thinking Person’s Guide to Climate Change. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 2nd ed., 480 pp.

The Big Haze

Karn Vohra, Alina Vodonos, Joel Schwartz, Eloise A. Marais, Melissa P. Sulprizio, and Loretta J. Mickley. Global mortality from outdoor fine particle pollution generated by fossil fuel combustion: Results from GEOS-Chem, Environmental Research, 195, 2021, 110754, ISSN 0013-9351,

Bond, T. C., Bhardwaj, E., Dong, R., Jogani, R., Jung, S., Roden, C., Streets, D. G., and Trautmann, N. M. (2007), Historical emissions of black and organic carbon aerosol from energy-related combustion, 1850–2000, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 21, GB2018, doi:10.1029/2006GB002840.

Graeber, David. Debt: The First 5,000 Years. Melville House Printing, 2011, 534 pp.

Loussouarn G, Lozano I, Panhard S, Collaudin C, El Rawadi C, Genain G. Diversity in human hair growth, diameter, colour and shape. An in vivo study on young adults from 24 different ethnic groups observed in the five continents. Eur J Dermatol 2016; 26(2): 144-54,

Hamanaka RB and Mutlu GM (2018) Particulate Matter Air Pollution: Effects on the Cardiovascular System. Front. Endocrinol. 9:680.

Johanna Lepeule, Francine Laden, Douglas Dockery, and Joel Schwartz (2012) Chronic Exposure to Fine Particles and Mortality: An Extended Follow-up of the Harvard Six Cities Study from 1974 to 2009
Environmental Health Perspectives 120:7 CID:

Luke Clancy, Pat Goodman, Hamish Sinclair, Douglas W Dockery,
Effect of air-pollution control on death rates in Dublin, Ireland: an intervention study, The Lancet, 360, 9341, 2002, 1210-1214,

Yorifuji T, Kashima S, Doi H. Fine-particulate Air Pollution from Diesel Emission Control and Mortality Rates in Tokyo: A Quasi-experimental Study. Epidemiology. 2016 Nov;27(6):769-78. PMID: 27479647.

Pope CA 3rd. Respiratory hospital admissions associated with PM10 pollution in Utah, Salt Lake, and Cache Valleys. Arch Environ Health. 1991 Mar-Apr;46(2):90-7. PMID: 2006899.

Puget Sound Clean Air Agency. DIY Air Filter. Accessed 6 Sept 2022.

Tessum CW, Apte JS, Goodkind AL, Muller NZ, Mullins KA, Paolella DA, Polasky S, Springer NP, Thakrar SK, Marshall JD, Hill JD. Inequity in consumption of goods and services adds to racial-ethnic disparities in air pollution exposure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Mar 26;116(13):6001-6006. Epub 2019 Mar 11. PMID: 30858319; PMCID: PMC6442600.

Colmer J, Hardman I, Shimshack J, Voorheis J. Disparities in PM2.5 air pollution in the United States. Science. 2020 Jul 31;369(6503):575-578. PMID: 32732425.

Aerosol radiative forcing is from Inputs4MIPs, scaled to the 2019 median and uncertainty range from IPCC AR6 WG1 Chapter 7.3.3.

Aas, W., Mortier, A., Bowersox, V. et al. Global and regional trends of atmospheric sulfur. Sci Rep 9, 953 (2019).

Rapid Transition Alliance. “SO₂ Long, Sulphur: How China rapidly cut sulphur dioxide emissions to help clear the air.” Posted on Sept. 21, 2022.₂-long-sulphur-how-china-rapidly-cut-sulphur-dioxide-emissions-to-help-clear-the-air/

O’Rourke, Patrick R, Smith, Steven J, Mott, Andrea, Ahsan, Hamza, McDuffie, Erin E, Crippa, Monica, Klimont, Zbigniew, McDonald, Brian, Wang, Shuxiao, Nicholson, Matthew B, Feng, Leyang, & Hoesly, Rachel M. (2021). CEDS v_2021_04_21 Release Emission Data (v_2021_02_05) [Data set]. Zenodo.

Persistence of Pollutants

Powell, Miles A. Vanishing America: Species Extinction, Racial Peril, and the Origins of Conservation. Harvard University Press, 2016, 264 pp.

Fabiani, Louise. “When Wilderness Was Strictly Whites-Only.” Pacific Standard, Dec. 1, 2016.

NoiseCat, Julian Brave. “The Environmental Movement Needs to Reckon With Its Racist History,” Motherboard, Sept. 13, 2019.

Mildenberger, Matto. “The Tragedy of the Tragedy of the Commons,” Scientific American, Apr. 23, 2019.

Frischmann, Brett. “The Tragedy of the Commons, Revisited,” Scientific American, Nov. 19, 2018.

Walljasper, Jay. “Elinor Ostrom’s 8 Principles for Managing A Commons,” Commons Magazine, Oct. 2, 2011.

Andrews, Eve. “Why Does Environmentalism Have a Dark Side?” Grist, Aug. 29, 2019.

Garcia, Sierra. “‘We’re the virus’: The pandemic is bringing out environmentalism’s dark side,” Grist, Mar. 30, 2020.

Smith, C. J., Forster, P. M., Allen, M., Leach, N., Millar, R. J., Passerello, G. A., and Regayre, L. A.: FAIR v1.3: A simple emissions-based impulse response and carbon cycle model, Geosci. Model Dev.,, 2018. Available for download here:

Etminan, M., Myhre, G., Highwood, E. J., and Shine, K. P. (2016), Radiative forcing of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide: A significant revision of the methane radiative forcing, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 12,614–12,623,

Who’s to Blame?

Gore, Tim. Confronting Carbon Inequality. Oxfam, Sept. 21, 2020.

Kaufman, Mark. “The Carbon Footprint Sham,” Mashable. Accessed 6 Sept 2022.

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Carbon Nations: Sources of Carbon Dioxide


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